This is a straightforward validation of the forcing used on the lunar-driven ENSO model.

The paper by Chao et al [1] provides a comprehensive spectral analysis of the earth's length of day (LOD) variations using both a wavelet analysis and a power spectrum analysis. The wavelet analysis provides insight into the richness of the LOD cyclic variations (c.f. the Chao ref 6 in a recent post) :

Both the wavelet and the power spectrum (below) show the 6-year Fourier component that appears in the ENSO model as a mixed tidal forcing.

The original premise is that the change in LOD via the equivalent angular momentum change will impart a forcing on the Pacific ocean thermocline as per a *reduced-gravity model*:

**RED**) match those found by Chao

*et al*in their

**Δ**LOD analysis :

There are additional peaks not found by Chao but those are reduced in magnitude, as can be inferred from the log (i.e. dB) scale. If these actually exist in the Chao spectrum, they may be buried in the background noise. Also, the missing Sa and Ssa peaks are the seasonal LOD variations that are taken into account separately by the model, as most ENSO data sets are typically filtered to remove seasonal data.

The tidal constituents shown above in the Chao power spectra are defined in the following Doodson table [3]. Chao likely is unable to discriminate the tropical values from the draconic and anomalistic values, being so close in value. On the other hand, the ENSO model needs to know these values precisely. Each of the primary Mm, Mf, Mtm, and Mqm and satellite Msm, Msf, Mstm, Msqm factors align with the first 4 harmonics of the mixed nonlinear ENSO model with the 2nd order satellites arising from the anomalistic correction.

This is an excellent validation test because this particular LOD power spectrum has not been used previously in the ENSO model fitting process. If the peaks did not match up, then the original premise for LOD forcing would need to be reconsidered.

## References

[1] B. F. Chao, W. Chung, Z. Shih, and Y. Hsieh, “Earth’s rotation variations: a wavelet analysis,” Terra Nova, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 260–264, 2014.

[2] A. Capotondi, “El Niño–Southern Oscillation ocean dynamics: Simulation by coupled general circulation models,” *Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary?*, pp. 105–122, 2013.

[3] D. D. McCarthy (ed.): IERS Conventions (1996) (IERS Technical Note No. 21) :

Chapter 6